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Old 07-02-2012, 06:33 PM   #361
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The Somme casualty figures were exacerbated by the fact that many of the troops committed were from the New Army, those units created in the first days of the war from volunteers.

Men who worked together or who had a common background all joined up and formed the Pals battalions and it was these units that went over the top on the 1st July.

Famously a battalion raised from the small town of Accrington suffered grievous casualties as did the Newfoundland Regiment and indeed the Ulster Division.

Brave men, clear in purpose and a sad loss to our nation.
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Old 07-02-2012, 06:41 PM   #362
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It was largely the sacrificial bravery of the Ulster Divison that led to the six counties being retained as part of Great Britain when Ireland gained independence.Men of the Ulster Division actually got into the German Trenches but then had to withdraw, on that terrible First day .
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Old 07-02-2012, 11:08 PM   #363
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In Newfoundland, July 1 is not only Canada Day, but Memorial Day, when they remember the Newfoundland Regiment's sacrifice in 1916.
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Old 07-03-2012, 07:44 AM   #364
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Newfoundland Farm where those men fought is now a memorial run by the Canadian Govt. It brings it home to you just how small the distances were.
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Old 07-03-2012, 11:33 AM   #365
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July 3, 1900
Diplomatic Relations The United States, backed by Britain, announces an “Open Door” policy of supporting equal trade access to China for all nations.

July 3, 1914
Diplomatic Relations The Serbian minister in Vienna is informed that Austria-Hungary does not suspect the Serbian people or government, but only “certain agitators”.

July 3, 1915
Eastern Front The Russians retreat from the Grila-Lipa line toward the Zlota Lipa.
South Africa General Smuts offers a volunteer contingent for service in France.
United States Muenter shoots J.P. Morgan, Jr. for representing the British government in war contract negotiations. He is quickly arrested. Morgan soon recovers.

July 3, 1916
Western Front, Somme Falkenhayn visits Below’s headquarters and, insisting that “the first principle…must be to yield not one foot of ground”, dismisses Below’s chief of staff, Major General Grunert, for having authorized the withdrawal from Flaucourt, replacing him with Fritz von Lossberg. He informs Below that five divisions of reinforcements are en route and about 40 batteries are now being emplaced. Air reinforcements have also arrived. The commander in chief has called a halt to the offensive at Verdun to provide for the Somme defense. The British take La Boisselle. The French take Fuilleres and Flaucourt.
Western Front,Verdun The Germans take Damloup, but are driven out again.
Eastern Front Fighting continues at Baranovichi.
War in the Air French aircraft attack Sofia.
Caucasus The Russians resume their offensive west of Erzurum.
Diplomatic Relations Russia and Japan sign an agreement settling disputes in the Far East and agreeing that neither would enter any agreement directed at the other..
German East Africa The Belgians defeat a 300-strong German force at Kato, on Lake Victoria, though at heavy cost.

July 3, 1917
Western Front Another German attack on the Aisne fails. There is some fighting at Verdun.
Eastern Front A Russian attack at Brzezany fails. There are artillery duels along the Stokhod. A Russian attack in the Vilna sector quickly stalls.

July 3, 1918
Western Front The French gain some ground north of the Aisne, taking 1000 prisoners.
Finland German troops prepare to operate against the Murmansk railway.
Turkey Sultan Mohammed V dies. Mohammed VI becomes Sultan.
Persia Bicherakov’s force sails for Alyaty.
Allied Planning The Supreme War Council considers a plan proposed by General Louis Franchet d’Esperey for an attack by the Salonika armies against the Bulgarians. Unsympathetic to Franchet’s plans – Western Front commanders want to keep the focus and troops there, and Lloyd George wants to transfer troops to Palestine – the council refers the plan to a committee.

July 3, 1919
Allied Command The Allied Supreme War Council is formally dissolved.
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Old 07-04-2012, 11:51 AM   #366
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July 4, 1914
Austria-Hungary The archduke and his duchess are buried on their private estate at Arstetten, 50 miles west of Vienna. Franz Josef does not attend the funeral.

July 4, 1915
Western Front The Argonne battle dies down; the Germans have gained ground but failed to break through.
Italian Front 2nd Army’s attack is halted with virtually no progress.
Dardanelles A heavy Turkish attack is repulsed. Offshore, the French liner Carthage, serving as a transport, is torpedoed and sunk. Six are killed.
Aden Lahej is attacked by Turkish forces. The village of Sheikh Othman is captured, within artillery range of Aden harbor.
Southwest Africa While Botha and the Germans have agreed to a truce at Otavi, some South Africans, unaware of the truce, have pushed on to capture Gaub and now force the surrender of Tsumeb. They capture huge stores of arms, ammunition and equipment brought here to be distributed to the South African rebels. Tsumeb is also the site of a prisoner-of-war camp. 600 POW’s are set free.

July 4, 1916
Western Front, Somme The British take Bernafay Wood. French troops take Estrees and Sormont.
Western Front, Verdun The Germans again take Thiaumont.
Eastern Front The Russians launch a second offensive. Lesh’s 3rd Army crosses the Styr at Kolki and Rafalovka and drives the Austrians toward the Stokhod. Resistance is stiffer than in June.
Italian Front The Italians advance in Trentino.
Arabia The last Turkish resistance in Mecca ends after 3 weeks of stubborn fighting.
Mexico The Mexican-American crisis is further defused when Carranza suggests that the two nations enter into direct and friendly negotiations to resolve their misunderstanding.

July 4, 1917
War in the Air A bomber raid on Harwich kills 17.
War at Sea A U-Boat shells Punta Delgada, in the Azores.
Palestine A Turkish cavalry probe from Beersheba is turned back.

July 4, 1918
Western Front Australians, with 4 American companies, take Le Hamel, 12 miles east of Amiens, in a model combined arms attack with British tanks.
Russia The Czechs defeat Soviet forces at Nikolaevsk, 50 miles north of Vladivostok.
Italian Front The Italians continue to make small gains.
Diplomatic Relations The British give in on the issue of searching the Dutch East Indies convoy.
War at Sea On one day, American shipyards launch 95 new ships, 43 of them steel and 52 wooden.

July 4, 1921
Italy Giolitti is replaced as premier by Ivanoe Bonomi.
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Old 07-05-2012, 11:35 AM   #367
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July 5, 1914
Bosnia, Austria-Hungary The last of the conspirators is arrested.
Central Powers Diplomacy Count Alexander Höyös, an envoy from Berchtold, arrives with a letter from Franz Josef to the Kaiser inquiring whether Austria can expect Germany’s support if she mobilizes against Serbia. Austrian ambassador Count Szögyeny lunches with Wilhelm II at Potsdam New Palace and receives the Kaiser’s assurances that Germany will stand by Austria, even if the result is war with Russia. This is the infamous “blank check”. It is doubtful that Wilhelm understands the full extent of what he has just done. Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg endorses the promise and he almost certainly does understand.

July 5, 1915
Western Front There is fighting at Souchez, Arras, and on the Meuse.
Britain Lord Fisher is appointed chairman of the Inventions Board.
Eastern Front An Austro-German attack near Veprj is repulsed in heavy fighting. The Austro-German offensive northward from Galicia toward Lublin and Kholm is suspended.
Italian Front Although five days of spirited attacks have netted the Italians nothing more than a slight salient on the river at Sagrado and some positions on the Carso, allowing an overlook of Monte San Michele, General Cadorna remains obdurate. He orders the entire 2nd Army into the assault. At 6:00 PM, the Italians attack along a line from Podgora to Doberdo, but General Borojevic’s troops, backed by small reserves, hold fast and inflict 4000 casualties. Gorizia eludes Cadorna. He now realizes that any future hope of advancing to Trieste depends upon capturing Monte San Michele.
Dardanelles The Turkish attacks at Gully Ravine are broken off. The battle has gained the Allies half a mile at a cost of 3800 men. Turkish losses top 12,000.
Aden The British abandon Lahej and retire to Bir Nasr, then to Aden itself. The Sultan of Lahij’s mercenaries, willing to serve Lahij, but not the British, mostly go home or go over to the Turks.
Mesopotamia With his current objective being An Nasariyah, control point for communications between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, General Nixon sends a force under Sir George Gorringe to drive the Turks out of this key town on the Euphrates.

July 5, 1916
Western Front, Somme The French repel counterattacks.
Western Front, Verdun German attacks at Avocourt fail.
Serbia and Montenegro The Austrian garrisons are being weakened as troops are required on other fronts. Risings and guerrilla warfare spread throughout the occupied territories.

July 5, 1917
Eastern Front There is heavy fighting around Brzezany.
World Affairs The Belgian delegates at the Stockholm Conference announce a policy of no peace with Germany.

July 5, 1918
Western Front Australian troops advance northeast of Villers-Bretonneux.
Russia The British and Serbs confront Soviet resistance at Kem on the Murmansk railway. After overcoming it, two Red leaders are shot by the Serbs. The expedition then pushes on to secure Soroka.
Albania French and Italian troops open an offensive in southern Albania.
The Netherlands The East Indies convoy sails.
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Old 07-06-2012, 11:23 AM   #368
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July 6, 1914
Germany Wilhelm II embarks aboard the royal yacht Hohenzollern for his annual cruise off Norway. The German government is anxious to have him out of the way while war is being prepared. The idea is that German threats will force Russia to back down as in 1909. Thus humiliated once more, Russia will be effectively shorn of Great Power status and the alliance with France rendered worthless. France will again be isolated on the Continent and Britain forced to come to terms, leaving Germany supreme in Europe. The Serb “viper” crushed, Austria-Hungary will be revitalized to stand at Germany’s side.
Diplomatic Relations Foreign Minister Sergei Sazanov summons the Austrian chargé d’affairs, Count Ottokar von Czernin, and warns him that Russia will obect to any unreasonable Austrian demands upon Serbia.

July 6, 1915
Western Front The Germans gain ground at Vaux Fery on the Meuse. The British take some trenches near Pilckem.
Eastern Front Renewed Austrian attacks near Krasnik fail with heavy loss.
Britain The South African offer of an Imperial contingent is accepted.
German East Africa In the 4:00 AM darkness, the British monitors Severn and Mersey move into the delta of the Rufiji River to attack the Königsberg. The monitors withstand fire from shore batteries, blow up a torpedo launched by the Germans, and by 6:30 AM anchor and open fire. Return fire finds the range and slams two shells into the Mersey, killing four. The exchange of fire continues into the afternoon. Four shells hit the Königsberg, opening a hole in her hull. With their guns overheated and their men weary, the monitors head back down the river past the German gauntlet and return to the safety of the delta at 4:30.
United States Muenter commits suicide while in police custody.

July 6, 1916
Western Front, Somme The British make minor gains at Thiepval. The French repulse further counterattacks.
Eastern Front German troops fall back in disorder from the vicinity of Chartorysk.
Britain Lloyd George becomes Secretary of State for War. Sir Edward Grey is raised to the peerage as Viscount Grey of Falldon.

July 6, 1917
Eastern Front Heavy fighting spreads from Brzezany to Stanislau. The advance is stalled amid increasing instances of indiscipline and insubordination as troops sometimes refuse to advance.
Germany The new Reichstag demands domestic reforms and a peace without annexations or indemnities. There is a brief mutiny at Kiel, put down by force.
German East Africa At Mhindi, soldiers of 3/KAR attack a German detachment under Captain von Liebermann, who withdraws to Narungombe, 40 miles west of Kilwa, where the Germans build strong defenses.
Palestine Lawrence, Auda abu Tayi, and their force of Howeitat tribesmen capture Aqaba after a nearly two-month trek across the desert, inflicting 460 casualties. The coastal town gives the Arabs a base within a hundred miles of Allenby’s operations from which to advance toward Damascus. Lawrence will report to Allenby in Cairo and obtain his support for continued operations.
Russia General Kaledin is elected Hetman of the Don Cossack Host.

July 6, 1918
Russia Count Mirbach, the German Ambassador in Moscow, is assassinated during a Left Social Revolutionary putsch. It fails. Further north at Yaroslavl, other SR’s launch a rebellion, which requires two weeks and Soviet reinforcements to suppress. The Communists blame British agents for the risings, especially Sidney Reilly and Bruce Lockhart.
The U.S. agrees to send troops to Siberia. Wilson declares that they are solely to protect the Czechs against bands of German and Austrian POW’s, and that there is “no purpose to interfere with internal affairs of Russia” or infringe Russian sovereignty. Wilson’s intervention in Russia has been generally reluctant.
Italian Front The Piave delta has been cleared of Austrian troops.
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Old 07-07-2012, 11:41 AM   #369
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July 7, 1914
Austria-Hungary A government council meeting decides on war with Serbia. The Hungarian premier Count IstvanTisza insists that the diplomatic niceties be observed by preceding the assault with an ultimatum. A diplomatic victory, however, is not what the council has in mind. Only the destruction of Serbia will suffice and so the terms of the ultimatum are to be so stiff that the Serbs cannot possibly accept. The ultimatum takes days to craft, while Berlin urges haste.

July 7, 1915
Eastern Front German attacks are held up near Krasnostav.
Italian Front Italian attacks around Gorizia are repulsed. The 1st Battle of the Isonzo has cost 15,000 Italian and 10,000 Austrian casualties.
Angola The Portuguese reoccupy Humbe without resistance.

July 7, 1916
Western Front, Somme British troops assault Mametz Wood, which Haig sees as vital to protecting his right flank during a renewed offensive; the Germans hold fast. The British at Thiepval carry part of the Leipzig Redoubt. Contalmaison is taken, but then lost to counterattacks.
Eastern Front Russian troops in the Lutsk sector reach Manevichi station on the Kovel-Sarni rail line. The Germans pull back behind the Stokhod.
Italian Front Italian troops carry two Austrian positions north of Asiago.
German East Africa The British occupy Tanga. Control of the port allows for an improved supply system for the British forces.

July 7, 1917
Western Front The French gain ground at Cerny and Verdun.
War in the Air A major bomber raid on London kills 57 and injures 193. The British still have no effective means of combating the Gothas. The public responds with anger and demands for more aircraft to protect London.

July 7, 1918
Western Front Intelligence reports gained through patrols, prisoners, and aerial reconnaissance coming to Petain have indicated that Ludendorff plans a major offensive on the Marne. Air reconnaissance alone substantiates the German buildup. Petain understands that the objectives of this offensive are Rheims, Epernay, and Chalons, which means that the 5th Army of Henri Berthelot will take the brunt of it. To Berthelot’s left, General Degoutte’s 6th Army’s right, including AEF units, will also come under fire, as will the leftward units of Henri Goraud’s 4th Army. Petain knows that the date for the attack is July 15. With Foch’s approval, Petain plans his own attack to be commanded by Mangin and to begin on July 18 against the German salient in the Aisne sector. Its chances of success will be greater if the Germans are preoccupied on the Marne. Ludendorff confronts a growing opposition; he has 207 divisions on the Western Front, but the Allies have 203, and 17 of these are double-sized American divisions. For the first time in 1918, the Germans are outnumbered. Ludendorff views the impending battle as a Friedensturm, a decisive battle to attain peace, because he believes its success will finally permit him to turn to the destruction of the BEF in Flanders.
War in the Air There are now over 3300 planes in the northeast sector of the Western Front.
Five DH9 light bombers based in the Aegean bomb Constantinople, setting fire to a munitions factory.
Hermann Göring (eventually 22 kills) becomes head of the “Richtofen Flying Circus”.
Russia The Czechs defeat a Soviet force at Chita, east of Irkutsk.
Albania Italian troops attack along the Vojusa River.

July 7, 1919
Germany The government ratifies the peace treaty.
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Old 07-07-2012, 01:47 PM   #370
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ennath View Post
July 7, 1917
War in the Air A major bomber raid on London kills 57 and injures 193. The British still have no effective means of combating the Gothas. The public responds with anger and demands for more aircraft to protect London.

A photograph published in the Illustrated London News following the 7th July, 1917 raid. The caption read: As thousands saw the enemy: German "Gotha" aeroplanes over the Metropolitan area.

It's been reported that many of the casualties were caused by falling anti-aircraft shells.
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